We are coming to the end of the first quarter of the 21st century, machines began to gain more importance. The place of autonomy in our lives is increasing day by day in an undeniable way. In today’s article, we will examine the history of the computer, which is the beginning of these.
Introduction – History of Computer
It begins with the abacus, which is considered the first computer in history. The abacus was invented by the Chinese in BC. It started to be used in 1000 years. In 1854, George Boole created the binary number system by referring to the working logic of data operations in the computer. This system is still used for computers.
The binary number system consists of 0 and 1 (yes or no). “The Mark 1” was the first electro-mechanical computer in 1937, developed by Howard Aiken and Browne. In Mark 1, logarithm and trigonometry functions can be performed, unlike previous studies that work with a punched card system. Although it was slow, it was among its advantages that it could run fully automatically.
Who Invented the Computer?
The first computer resembling today’s modern machines was the Analytical Engine, a device conceived and designed by British mathematician Charles Babbage between 1833 and 1871.
Eniac (Electronic Numerator Integrator Analyzer and Computer)
It is the first computer to decipher the German codes of World War II, 167 m2, weighing 30 tons, consisting of 19,000 vacuum tubes and finally 600 keys and consuming 180 kW per hour.
The most important feature of these computer types is the use of RAM memory. Although it has started to be used for ballistic calculations in the Ministry of Defense in the United States, it has developed over time and took the place of today’s modern computers. At that time, this machine, which was not even called a computer, often broke down and the insects that got into it were causing problems to its electronic circuits. When ENIAC was broken, programmers as it is called today were stopping the machine to clean the dead bugs in the circuits.
In the period when the ENIAC computer was used, EDVAC (Electronic Abstract Variable Automatic Computer) produced a new computer in line with the work of John Von Neumann. EDVAC is smaller and faster than ENIAC. In this computer, commands were made by the user by entering the computer from outside. EDVAC was used until the creation of the UNIVAC, the first commercially available computer.
The IBM 700 Series
IBM 700 series are electronic computers produced by using vacuum tubes together with Univac after the development of vacuum tubes, which is one of the first computer generations after the 1950s. Vacuum tubes in these computers were malfunctioning as a result of consuming too much energy and heating. In order to write programs in the IBM 700 series, it was necessary to have a good knowledge of the hardware in the computer used. Machine language was used to write the program.
0-1s in microprocessors are also used here. We will also have articles on the concept of 0 and 1 in the future.
Philco Transac S-200 IBM 1401
Philco Transac S-200 is a computer made using IBM 1401 transistor. IBM 360, on the other hand, started to produce integrated circuits after 1960 and this integrated includes elements that contain many transistors. In this way, while the size of the computer was reduced, it was ensured that the costs were reduced and the processing speed increased. In addition, central processing units were produced with the use of magnetic disks and integrated circuits.
Apple was introduced in 1977 and is said to have been produced in a garage by two college students. This computer did not have a keyboard and monitor. In 1984, the first graphical operating system was introduced by the Apple Macintosh. “Microsoft” company has written word processor for Macintosh.
When we look at modern computers, we can give an example of Alan Turing. Thanks to the Turing Test, which Alan Turing invented and developed by himself, we can say that the comparison capabilities of today’s computers have improved.
When we look at the history of computers, they have become from room-sized computers to fit in our pockets. The aim now is to design it in the form of chips.
If you want to watch a movie about the history of the computers, we recommend Enigma.